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Robert Stelzer, Program Coordinator
Office: Halsey Science Center 150
Telephone: 920-424-0845


Adler, Bentivenga,Churchill, Cooper, Dilkes, Dorn, Kostman, Kurtz, Lucas, Matson, McDermott, McPhee, Merriman, Michalski, Mitchell, Mueller-Spitz, Pillsbury, Shors, Stelzer


The graduate program in Biology/Microbiology is designed to provide the advanced training appropriate for professional competitiveness in public and private job sectors. It is particularly applicable for people employed who seek employment in these sectors and for those preparing to pursue a doctoral degree in biology, microbiology or a sub-discipline of these fields. Research concentrations include health, environmental science, ecology, animal and plant biology, microbiology and sustainability.


Completion of the program will lead to the degree: Master of Science (M.S.)


In addition to the requirements of the Office of Graduate Studies specified in the POLICIES section of this Bulletin, the program has established the following policies and procedures for admission:

Grade-Point Average
A overall grade-point average of 3.00 in an undergraduate program, or 3.25 during the last half 60 credits of undergraduate work, is required for admission.

References and Test Score
Three reference letters are required. At least two of the three required letters should be written by individuals, preferably professors in the sciences, who are qualified to appraise the applicant’s abilities and potential ability to succeed in graduate school. Use pre-formatted letters provided by the Graduate Studies office.

The Graduate Record Examination (GRE) is required. The exam scores must be within five years of the current application date. For admission in full standing, a GRE Verbal + Quantitative combined score of 295 or higher is required. If the GRE is taken more than once, the best total score for a single exam at the time of admission will be used to determine admission status.

Undergraduate Major
Normally, the baccalaureate degree will have been earned in biology, microbiology, natural science or related fields.

Admission with Deficiencies
Applicants who lack adequate undergraduate preparation may be admitted with deficiencies and will be expected to take those courses specified by the program. This requirement may be waived, if the applicant has taken coursework, which is considered by the candidacy committee, to be equivalent to the course(s) lacking.

Admission Deadlines
April 1 is the application deadline for fall admission, November 1 is the application deadline for spring admission.


A. Structure
The program is comprised of core courses, emphases electives, and thesis.

B. Academic Plans of Study
Biology – <Emphasis> is the description for the Biology plan(s) of study:


C. Minimum Unit (Cr.) Requirements
30 (thirty) credits applicable to the graduate degree constitute the minimal requirement for all students. At least 15 credits applied to the M.S. degree must be in graduate-only courses (700 numbers).

D. Admission to Candidacy
Students must pass a written Biology comprehensive candidacy examination. The exam is prepared and the results are evaluated by the Advancement to Candidacy Committee (three graduate faculty from the department selected by the student). It is strongly recommended that students complete this exam as early as possible (e.g., at the end of the second semester for most students).

Additionally, students must satisfy fully the Office of Graduate Studies requirements for advancement to candidacy as stated in the POLICIES section of this Bulletin. Students must confer with their program coordinator/advisor to plan and receive program approval for their admission to candidacy. Students should apply for Admission to Candidacy after completing 9-21 credits. The Office of Graduate Studies gives final approval to Admission to Candidacy.

E. Graduation Requirements
Candidates must satisfy all program and Office of Graduate Studies academic, culminating, and degree requirements to be eligible for graduation and degree conferral.


All emphases require the following courses:

2 credits of Graduate Seminar:
748 1 Graduate Seminar in Biological Sciences
2 credits of Biostatistics:
710 2 Biostatistics
4 credits of Advanced Topics:
765 2 Advanced Topics in Microbiology
766 2 Advanced Topics in Biology
6 credits of thesis research:
795 1-6 Biology/Microbiology Thesis
Other Requirements:
Writing a thesis based on scientific research and an oral defense of thesis before a committee consisting of three qualified individuals, typically graduate faculty members.

All coursework taken for an emphasis must be specifically approved for that emphasis. Students are expected to consult first with the program coordinator and later with their thesis adviser and Admission to Candidacy Committee to select electives from the following list (or other appropriate courses):

504 3 Plant Taxonomy
506 3 Neurobiology
508 5 Comparative Anatomy
511 3 Animal Behavior
512 2 Medical Bacteriology Lecture
513 2 Medical Bacteriology Lab
515 3 Virology
516 3 Developmental Biology
519 5 General Animal Physiology
521 3 Mycology
523 3 Molecular and Cell Biology
525 3 Field Ecology
526 3 Introductory Limnology
527 3 Microbial Ecology
528 3 Ornithology
530 3 Ichthyology
532 3 Entomology
535 3 Systematic Biology
536 3 Fresh Water Algae
537 3 Plant Anatomy
539 3 Public Health and Food Microbiology
541 3 Immunology
545 5 Plant Physiology
549 3 General Ecology
550 3 Electron Microscopy
554 3 Parasitology
558 2 Freshwater Invertebrates
572 3 Medical and Environmental Applications of Cell Biology and Genetics
573 2 Biology Field Trip
574 3 Cell/Immunology Lab
575 3 Microbial Genetics
576 3 Population and Community Ecology
577 2 Microbial Genetics Lab
586 3 Ecosystem Ecology
589 3 Principles of Biotechnology
590 2 Biotechnology Lab
650 5 Microbial Physiology
702 4 Current Debates in Evolutionary Genetics
708 4 Systematics and Evolutionary Genetics
709 2 Introduction to Biological Research
749 3 Field Zoology
751 4 Biochemical Genetics
796 1-3 Independent Study in Biology/ Microbiology
799 0 Registration for Comprehensive Exam
523 3 Analytical Separations
535 4 Organic Chemistry II
536 1 Advanced Organic Lab
547 3 Physical Chemistry
548 1 Physical Chemistry Lab
549 3 Physical Chemistry
551 1 Physical Chemistry Lab
621 3 Instrumental Analysis
635 3 Interpretive Spectroscopy
563 3 Biogeography
571 3 Cartography
591 3 GIS I-Mapping and Visualization
671 3 GIS II-Fundamental of GIS
672 3 GIS III-Advanced GIS
565 3 Physical Hydrogeology
566 3 Chemical Hydrogeology
585 3 Applied Regression Analysis
586 3 Linear Statistical Models
601 3 Mathematical Statistics I
602 3 Mathematical Statistics II
507 3 Physical Optics
567 3 Psychopharmacology


The following core subjects are considered a foundation for study in the emphases. The student’s Admission to Candidacy Committee will use the results of the written comprehensive exam, along with consideration of the student’s field of research specialization and career goals, to determine whether courses or equivalent exercises in these areas should be required to complete the degree. Courses offered at this University for graduate credit are provided in most, but not all of the subjects listed. Thus, a student may be required to complete a course or equivalent exercise without credit toward the degree. It is anticipated that students qualified for acceptance into the graduate program will be well-prepared for advanced training in biological sciences and that the prescription of specific courses by the Admission to Candidacy Committee will be the exception, not the rule (e.g., in cases of students pursuing an emphasis different from their baccalaureate training).

A. Biology

Molecular Biology
Cell Biology
Intermediate Chemistry (Organic, Biochemistry)
Basic Mathematics (Statistics, Calculus)
Basic Physics

B. Microbiology

Molecular Biology
General Microbiology
Applied Microbiology (e.g., Medical, Food, Ecological Industrial)
Microbial Genetics
Microbial Physiology
Intermediate Chemistry (Organic, Biochemistry)
Basic Mathematics (Statistics, Calculus)
Basic Physics


Biology 504

3 (crs.)

Plant Taxonomy

Introduction to the theory and principles underlying systematic botany, and to the methodologies of plant classification and nomenclature. Survey of major families of flowering plants emphasizing structure and diversity. Prerequisite: One term of general biology. Special fees may apply. (2+2) (Fall)

Biology 506

3 (crs.)


Study of the nervous system and its regulatory role in the body. Underlying physics and chemistry; molecular and cellular principles; development and plasticity; motor control; rhythms and emotions; evolution and diversity. Prerequisites: Biology 105 or equivalent. (Spring)

Biology 508

5 (crs.)

Comparative Anatomy

A comparative study of representative vertebrates. Prerequisite: One semester of general biology. 308/508 (3+4) (Spring) Special fees may apply.

Biology 511

3 (crs.)

Animal Behavior

An introduction to the behavior mechanisms of invertebrate and vertebrate animals emphasizing the naturalistic point of view. Prerequisite: Biology 340 or 343. 311/511 (2+2) (Spring)

Biology 512

2 (crs.)

Medical Bacteriology (Lecture)

Bacterial pathogens and their relationships to diseases; prevention and control of infectious diseases. Prerequisite: Biology 309 and 341/541. 312/512 (2+0) (Spring)

Biology 513

2 (crs.)

Medical Bacteriology (Lab)

Isolation study, identification and laboratory handling of pathogenic bacteria. Prerequisite: Biology 309 and 341/541 and concurrent enrollment in Biology 312.(0+2) (Spring) Special fees may apply.

Biology 514

3 (crs.)

Principles of Wildlife Management

This course is designed to help students bridge the gap between academic experience and advances into the wildlife profession. The course will apply population and community ecology to the management and conservation of wild populations. Cross-listed: Environmental Studies 314/Biology 314. Students may receive credit for only one of the two cross-listed courses. Prerequisites: Environmental Studies 260 and Biology 349 or consent of instructor.

Biology 515

3 (crs.)


Principles of animal and human molecular virology. Topics include replication, expression, pathogenesis, methods of diagnosis and detection, current uses of viruses in gene therapy and vaccine applications, viruses and cancer and other diseases, persistent infections, and emerging viruses. Prerequisite: Biology 323 or consent of instructor. (3+0) (Spring)

Biology 516

3 (crs.)

Developmental Biology

Developmental Biology will first examine, at a morphological level, different strategies of embryonic development in diverse organisms, and then study molecular cues that cells use to migrate, differentiate and eventually form a normal organism. Prerequisite: Biology 323/523 or equivalent; Biology 343 strongly recommended. (3+0) (Spring)

Biology 518

3 (crs.)

Wildlife Behavior and Conservation

This course is designed to teach the fundamental theory of behavioral ecology and then apply that theory to wildlife conservation. We will examine how environments shape organisms’ lives and what that means for our efforts to manage and conserve species. The specific course objectives are to 1) gain a rigorous biological foundation in behavioral ecology, evolutionary biology, and related topics in order to understand how environments shape behavior; 2) provide a forum for discussion of current issues in conservation biology; 3) develop a framework for applying behavior ecological theory to wildlife conservation. Cross-listed: Biology 318/Environmental Studies 318. Students may receive credit for only one of the two cross-listed courses. Prerequisites: Biology 105 or Biology 260/Environmental Studies 260 or consent of instructor. (3+0) Special course fees may apply.

Biology 519

5 (crs.)

General Animal Physiology

Structure/function relationships common to a variety of animal body plans on the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organ-system levels. Prerequisite: One year of chemistry; Biology 323. Biology 230 strongly recommended. (3+1+3) (Fall, Spring) Special fees may apply.

Biology 521

3 (crs.)


A study of the fungi: characteristics, physiology, habits and laboratory identification of molds, yeasts, mushrooms and related organisms. Prerequisite: One semester of general biology. Special fees may apply. (2+2) (Fall)

Biology 522

1 (crs.)

Mushroom Identification

The collection and identification of mushrooms and other fleshy fungi. Prerequisite: Biology 321/521 (may be taken concurrently). (Fall)

Biology 523

3 (crs.)

Molecular and Cell Biology

This course covers the fundamental elements of molecular and cellular biology, including some current research techniques. Molecular biology covers structure, function and biosynthesis of DNA, RNA and proteins as well as regulation of gene expression. Cell biology examines cellular structures and how they accomplish replication, metabolism and response to the environment. Prerequisites: Biology 323; Biology 105 (or equivalent); Chemistry 105 (or equivalent); and previous or concurrent enrollment in Chemistry 106; or equivalent. Biology 535: One year of college-level chemistry. (3+0) (Fall/Spring)

Biology 525

3 (crs.)

Field Ecology

An introductory field ecology course that will cover comparative, experimental and theoretical approaches to basic and applied questions in ecology. Field and laboratory exercises will treat various levels of organization including populations, communities and ecosystems. Studies will be carried out in a variety of local aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Students will gain first-hand experience with modern sampling and analytical techniques in ecology. Prerequisite: Biology 105 and Biology 349/549 (may be taken concurrently). Special fees may apply. (0+1+3) (Fall)

Biology 526

3 (crs.)

Introductory Limnology

The physical, chemical and biological character of lakes and streams. Methods of field measurements, collection and analysis of water samples. Investigation of aquatic communities. Prerequisites: one semester of general biology, one year of general chemistry, and consent of instructor. Special fees may apply. (2+2) (Fall, odd years)

Biology 527

3 (crs.)

Microbial Ecology & Diversity

A broad overview of the physiological, phylogenetic and genomic diversity and ecology of microorganisms within a framework of general ecological principles. Focuses on evolutionary pressures leading to microbial diversity, biogeochemical cycles, symbiotic relationship, microbial relationships with other living organisms, metabolic pathways, and biotransformation of novel compounds. Prerequisite: Biology 231, 233, 309 or consent of instructor. (3+0) (Fall, odd years)

Biology 528

3 (crs.)


An introduction to the systematics, evolution, anatomy, behavior, and ecology of birds of the world. Field Trips. Prerequisite: Biology 230. (2+3) (Spring)

Biology 530

3 (crs.)


The biology of fishes including functional anatomy, evolution, taxonomy, ecology, physiology, behavior and development. Field trips required. Prerequisite: Biology 230 and one year of general chemistry with laboratory. (2+3) (Fall, odd years)

Biology 532

3 (crs.)


An introduction to the study of insects. Principles of biology, ecology and classification are emphasized. Elements of morphology, physiology, and collection and preservation techniques are included. Field trips. General collection of insects (assembled during the term is required. Prerequisite: One term of general biology. (2+3) (Spring) Special fees may apply.

Biology 535

3 (crs.)

Systematic Biology

A study of the principles of taxonomy, nomenclature, classification and systematics incorporating the most recent approaches to derivation and application of hierarchical/ classification systems. Quantitative methods, their underlying assumptions, and their logical outcomes will be stressed. Prerequisite: Two semesters of biology, including a survey course, required. (2+2) (Fall, even years)

Biology 536

3 (crs.)

Fresh Water Algae

Classification, biochemistry, physiology and ecology of fresh water algae. Emphasis on the roles algae play in aquatic ecosystems and on applications in environmental monitoring, aquaculture, and as experimental systems for basic research in photosynthesis. Prerequisite: Biology 231, 233 or 309. 336/536 (2+2) (Fall, even years)

Biology 537

3 (crs.)

Plant Anatomy

Structural aspects of cells, tissues, and organs comprising the plant body, their functional role in the ecology and life history of the plant, and their relationship to human affairs. Prerequisite: One semester of general biology required. Strongly recommended: Biology 231. Special fees may apply. (2+2) (Spring-odd years)

Biology 539

3 (crs.)

Public Health and Food Microbiology

A study of microorganisms and microbial processes important to a variety of public health applications: special reference to food, water, wastewater, and environmental processes and their applications. Prerequisite: Biology 309. (3+0) (Fall, even years) Special fees may apply.

Biology 541

3 (crs.)


Principles of immunology, with emphasis on the cellular and molecular basis of immune function, including clinical aspects of host immune processes. Areas of immunology currently under investigation will also be examined. Prerequisite: Biology 323 or consent of instructor. Strongly recommended: Biology 233 or 309. (3+0) (Fall)

Biology 545

5 (crs.)

Plant Physiology

An experimental study of plant growth, metabolism, nutrition, reproduction and response to environment. Prerequisite: One term of general biology, one year of general chemistry and Biology 231. (4+3) (Spring)

Biology 549

3 (crs.)

Ecology and Evolution

Basic Principles which influence and govern the plant and animal relations with their environments. An explanation of the distribution, abundance, and specialization of the present-day organisms, and of extinction. Prerequisite: One semester of general biology. 349/549 (3+0) (Fall-Spring)

Biology 550

4 (crs.)

Electron Microscopy

Electron Microscopy is an intensive, hands-on course covering the practices, procedures and operational theories of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Topics covered include specimen preparation, ultramicrotomy, microscope design and microscope function. The laboratory provides experience with all techniques necessary to prepare, observe, and photograph biological specimens on the SEM and TEM. Special fees may apply. (1+4) (Fall)

Biology 552

3 (crs.)

Biology of Aging

The course is designed to familiarize the students with the latest biological knowledge on the complex process of aging, a multifaceted phenomenon not unique to the human species. Prerequisite: Biology 107, and Biology 211, 212, 221, or consent of instructor. 352/552 (3+3)

Biology 553

3 (crs.)

Introduction to Arachnology

An introduction to the arachnid orders with emphasis on spiders, harvestmen, scorpions, and solfugids. Morphology, classification, ecology, and collecting techniques will be emphasized. A collection of spiders and harvestmen is required. Prerequisite: None. Strongly recommended: Biology 230. 353/553 (1+4)

Biology 554

3 (crs.)


A look at the most common mode of life. Emphasis will be placed on parasites of medical and veterinary importance. Topics will include life cycles, identification and diagnosis, disease, host-parasite interaction and co-evolution. Prerequisites: One term of general biology and Biology 230. (2+2) (Spring) Special fees may apply.

Biology 558

2 (crs.)

Freshwater Invertebrates

In this course Benthic organisms and zooplankton will be studied. Sampling techniques for different situations will be used. Data will be analyzed using several diversity techniques. The role of benthos and zooplankton in aquatic systems will be examined. Prerequisites: An introductory biology course and consent of instructor. (0+4) (Spring interim, odd years)

Biology 567

2 (crs.)

Field Ornithology

Field-oriented course intended to provide the practical “hands-on” experience essential to students interested in field biology. Field studies will emphasize identification and natural history of local avian species using a variety of field techniques. In addition to fieldwork, the course will involve lecture, specimen labs, and readings to examine important aspects of systematics, anatomy, physiology, behavior, ecology, and conservation as they apply to birds. Special fees may apply.

Biology 572

3 (crs.)

Medical and Environmental Applications of Cell Biology and Genetics

Theme-based course that discusses the principles and techniques of cell biology and genetics and how they apply to a variety of medical issues as well as other societal topics such as the molecular basis of drug addiction, cancer, aging and long term memory as well as the application of molecular techniques to species conservation, evolution and environmental influences on humans and other species. Papers from the literature will be read. Prerequisites: Biology 323 or equivalent or permission of the instructor. (3+0) (Spring)

Biology 573

2 (crs.)

Biology Field Trip

Formal library and classroom study of an area of interest followed by field study of that area. Site of study will change from year to year and could include Florida Everglades and Keys, Gulf Coast, Desert Southwest, etc. A final examination will follow the trip. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. See instructor for special course fees. May be taken more than once for credit but only 2 credits will apply toward the major or minor at the undergraduate level or MS Biology degree. To receive credit, student must be enrolled at beginning of semester. (Spring)

Biology 574

3 (crs.)

Cell/Immunology Laboratory

Laboratory course integrating principles of cell biology and immunology. Techniques employed include, but are not limited to western blotting, SDS-PAGE, PCR and applications, ELISAs, tissue culture, and microscopy. Course is designed for students interested in molecular methods and who aim to do research or gain jobs in fields of cell and molecular biology, microbiology, medicine and medical technology. Prerequisite: Previous or concurrent enrollment in Biology 341/541 or 372/572. Special fees may apply. (Fall)

Biology 575

3 (crs.)

Microbial Genetics

Structure of microbial genome mutation, expression and exchange of genetic information, genetic analysis, genetic engineering. Prerequisite: Biology 309 and Biology 340 or 343. 375/575 (Fall)

Biology 576

3 (crs.)

Population and Community Ecology

An introduction to the study of populations and communities. Examines population-level phenomena (e.g., density, demography, reproduction) and population-level interactions within biological communities (e.g., competition, predation, parasitism). Labs involve discussions of papers from the literature, data analysis, and computer simulations. Prerequisite: Biology 349 or consent of instructor. 376/576 (2+3) (Fall)

Biology 577

2 (crs.)

Microbial Genetics Laboratory

A laboratory course to study the genetics of bacteria and their viruses. Genetic mapping will be introduced using techniques involving mutagenesis, recombination, plasmid transfer, transduction and transformation systems. Prerequisite: Biology 309 and 375/575 (may be taken concurrently). Special fees may apply. 377/577 (0+4) (Fall)

Biology 586

3 (crs.)

Ecosystem Ecology

An introduction to the study of ecosystems with an emphasis on biogeochemical cycles, energy budgets, and other emergent properties. Laboratory will focus on comparative and experimental approaches to the study of local ecosystems (streams, lakes, wetlands, forests). Students will acquire hands-on experience with techniques used by ecosystem ecologists such as nutrient analysis of stream water, determination of ecosystem metabolism, and analysis of forest and wetland soils. Prerequisite: Biology 349 or consent of instructor. (2+2) (Spring)

Biology 589

3 (crs.)

Principles of Biotechnology

A survey of methods and processes used in industrial microbiology and the techniques used in the development of new processes (recombinant DNA, monoclonal antibodies and genetic improvement). Prerequisite: Biology 323 and 343. Strongly recommended: Biology 375 or consent of instructor. (3+0) (Spring)

Biology 590

2 (crs.)

Biotechnology Laboratory

A laboratory course that complements the lecture course Biology 389/589 in biotechnology. Students will gain hands-on experience in some of the principles of cell culture, product isolation and purification, and molecular genetic manipulation of genes that are basic to many areas of this broad and rapidly changing field. Exercises are planned in cell culture, computer analysis of cell culture parameters, protein isolation and purification, gene cloning and nucleic acid probe techniques, DNA sequencing, and computer analysis of DNA and protein sequences. If taken at the undergraduate level, the course may not be repeated for graduate credit. Prerequisite: Biology 309. Strongly recommended: Biology 372/572 and 375/575. (0+4) (Spring) Special fees may apply.

Biology 650

5 (crs.)

Microbial Physiology

Physiological metabolic processes of bacteria with emphasis on growth, nutrition, synthesis of cellular constituents and energy yielding processes. Prerequisite: Biology 309. Strongly recommended: Chemistry 302. Special fees may apply. (3+4) (Fall)

Biology 702

4 (crs.)

Current Debates in Evolutionary Biology

Recent advances and debates in evolutionary biology, approaches will involve reading primary research articles and books, compiling and analyzing data, and preparing research reports. Prerequisite: Graduate standing. Topics will change with each offering.

Biology 708

4 (crs.)

Systematics and Evolutionary Genetics

Interrelates and synthesizes the theory of Organic Evolution in the light of findings and practices of two related biological disciplines, viz., 1) Systematic Biology (dealing with the logical and empirical premises of classification systems, species concept, significance of higher taxa, taxonomic methods and their evaluation) and 2) Evolutionary Genetics (dealing with the laws of genetics and bio-mathematics as applied to evolving populations). Prerequisite: Biology 107, 231 or a semester course in general zoology. (4+0)

Biology 709

2 (crs.)

Introduction to Biological Research

A course wherein a graduate student would formulate a sound approach to biological research. The objectives include a working knowledge of the literature and techniques of research in the area. (Fall, Spring; Arrange with thesis advisor)

Biology 710

2 (crs.)


This course will cover the basic types of statistics used in the analysis of biological data. Topics include descriptive statistics, types of data, comparisons of two populations, probability, multiple comparisons (ANOVA), experimental design, linear regression, power analysis and multivariate analysis. Students will use both calculators and standard statistical programs to explore various data sets. Prerequisites: Psych 203 or equivalent, or consent of instructor. (2+0) Spring)

Biology 729

1 (crs.)

Advanced Human Anatomy

Advanced study of the major anatomical regions of the human body with clinical importance for anesthetists. Particular attention will be placed on the respiratory pathway, heart and major vessels of the neck and limbs, and regions of the nervous system pertaining to nerve blocks. Topics of discussion will include age-related chances to anatomy and their implications for anesthesia. This course will utilize lectures, discussions of clinical cases, study of models, and their examination of cadavers. Prerequisites: Admission to the College of Nursing’s CRNA doctoral program

Biology 730

4 (crs.)

Advanced Human Physiology

A review of the integrated approach to human physiology, accompanied by advanced study of the body’s functional systems. Emphasis will be placed on critical systems affected by anesthesia administration (nervous, cardiac, respiratory, thermoregulatory) and on physiological states that complicate anesthesia (pregnancy, obesity, advanced age, etc.). As befits doctoral training, students will be expected to demonstrate facility interpreting and articulating physical and chemical explanations of physiological processes and interventions. Prerequisites: Admission to the College of Nursing’s CRNA doctoral program.

Biology 748

1 (crs.)

Graduate Seminar in Biological Sciences

Students will review a significant body of current scientific and deliver presentations both to the class and to the entire department. Topics may be drawn from any area of the biological sciences. Critical analysis, organization, and delivery of all aspects of a professional presentation is expected. Students also will attend and critique other presentations. Graduate students are encouraged to give a seminar on their proposed thesis research project once during their M.S. program. Prerequisites: Completion of at least 6 graduate credits in Biology/Microbiology. Open only to students admitted to the M.S. in Biology, who are in full standing. Instructor permission may be granted to waive these prerequisites in special circumstances. (Fall, Spring)

Biology 749

3 (crs.)

Field Zoology

Field trips, observing local animals; identification and study of collected species. Prerequisite: One year of biology.

Biology 751

4 (crs.)

Biochemical Genetics

DNA structure, replication of genetic material, mutation, and genetic exchange in various organisms with emphasis on procaryotes and viruses. Prerequisite: Biology 309 and 340. (2+2)

Biology 765

2 (crs.)

Advanced Topics in Microbiology/Virology

Recent advances in bacteriology, virology, and immunology will be discussed in detail. Course may be repeated for a total of 6 credits. (2+0) (Fall, Spring)

Biology 766

2 (crs.)

Advanced Topics in Biology

Recent advances in biological science will be examined in detail. Content varies with offering. Course may be repeated for a total of 6 credits. (Fall, Spring)

Biology 769

2 (crs.)

Introduction to Microbiological Research

Theory and applications of selected analytical methods widely used in biological research. (0+4) (Spring)

Biology 780

4 (crs.)

Community Energetics

Dynamics of the biotic community. A consideration of nutrient sources, utilization, release and cycling, and energy, its sources and its flow through trophic components of the community. Prerequisite: Biology 349. (4+0)

Biology 795

1 – 6 (crs.)

Biology/Microbiology Thesis

Each registration with maximum accumulation of 6 cr. Registration for thesis credit for MS Biology/Microbiology students. Prerequisite: Thesis Proposal and Advisor Approval Form must be filed in Graduate Office. Pass/Fail course.

Biology 796

1 – 3 (crs.)

Independent Study in Biology/Microbiology

Registration for MS Biology/Microbiology students who have filed Independent Study Topic and Instructor Approval Form with Graduate Office.

Biology 799

0 (crs.)

Registration for Comprehensive Examination

Required registration for MS Biology/Microbiology students in their final term who are not registered for credit courses. Pass/Fail course.